Mugabe is like a father who has betrayed his children – MP


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President Robert Mugabe was like a father who had betrayed his children and was no longer worthy to be a father. This was the view of newly elected Movement for Democratic Change legislator for Nyanga, Evelyn Masaiti when she joined parliament in 2000.

Another MDC MP, Priscilla Misihairabwi-Mushonga of Glen Norah, said Mugabe was the source of the country’s problems and must resign.

The new parliament in which the MDC had 57 out of the 120 contested seats had 108 new legislators out of a total of 150 including 30 directly appointed by Mugabe.

 

Full cable:

 

Viewing cable 00HARARE5003, NEW ZIMBABWE PARLIAMENT STILL FEELING ITS WAY

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Reference ID

Created

Released

Classification

Origin

00HARARE5003

2000-09-11 08:43

2011-08-30 01:44

CONFIDENTIAL

Embassy Harare

This record is a partial extract of the original cable. The full text of the original cable is not available.

 

 

 

CONFIDENTIAL     PTQ3328

 

PAGE 01       HARARE 05003 01 OF 03 110846Z

ACTION AF-00

 

INFO LOG-00   NP-00   AID-00   ACQ-00   CEA-01   CIAE-00 CTME-00

DODE-00 DOTE-00 SRPP-00 DS-00   EB-00   EUR-00   EXIM-01

E-00     FAAE-00 VC-00   FRB-00   H-01     TEDE-00 INR-00

IO-00   ITC-01   LAB-01   L-00     VCE-00   AC-01   NSAE-00

OIC-02   OMB-01   OPIC-01 PA-00   PM-00   PRS-00   ACE-00

P-00     SP-00   SSO-00   STR-00   TRSE-00 USIE-00 PMB-00

DSCC-00 DRL-02   G-00     NFAT-00 SAS-00   SWCI-00   /012W

——————83A2DF 110846Z /38

FM AMEMBASSY HARARE

TO SECSTATE WASHDC PRIORITY 7044

INFO NSC WASHDC PRIORITY

SOUTHERN AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY

C O N F I D E N T I A L SECTION 01 OF 03 HARARE 005003

 

SIPDIS

 

NSC FOR SENIOR AFRICA DIRECTOR GAYLE SMITH

LONDON FOR CHARLES GURNEY

PARIS FOR BISA WILLIAMS

 

USUN FOR HOLBROOKE

 

E.O. 12958: DECL: 09/11/10

TAGS: PGOV PREL ECON ZI CG

SUBJECT: NEW ZIMBABWE PARLIAMENT STILL FEELING ITS WAY

 

REF: HARARE 4026

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 02      HARARE 05003 01 OF 03 110846Z

 

CLASSIFIED BY AMB. TOM MCDONALD. REASONS: 1.5 (B) AND

(D).

 

1. (C) SUMMARY: SINCE ITS JULY 20 OPENING (REFTEL),

ZIMBABWE’S NEW PARLIAMENT HAS FALLEN INTO RAUCOUS DEBATE

AND POLITICAL SPARRING THAT HAS YIELDED FEW CONCRETE

RESULTS. ONE HUNDRED EIGHT OUT OF 150 MEMBERS ARE NEW

TO THE LEGISLATIVE BODY AND THIS HAS BEEN REFLECTED IN

THE LOW QUALITY OF DEBATE.   MAIDEN SPEECHES AND

PAROCHIAL CONCERNS HAVE CONSUMED MUCH OF THE BODY’S TIME

SINCE IT OPENED (IT HAS BEEN IN SESSION ONLY FOUR OF THE

LAST SEVEN WEEKS) DESPITE A GENERAL RECOGNITION THAT

URGENT ACTION IS NEEDED ON THE COUNTRY’S DIRE ECONOMIC

CONDITION. MANY MOVEMENT FOR DEMOCRATIC CHANGE (MDC)

MEMBERS HAVE LAMBASTED THE GOVERNMENT, AND IN SOME

CASES, PRESIDENT MUGABE PERSONALLY, FOR FAILING TO

ADDRESS ZIMBABWE’S MOUNTING WOES AND FOR ORCHESTRATING A

CAMPAIGN OF TERROR AGAINST ITS CITIZENS. BEHIND THE

SCENES, A MORE SOPHISTICATED COMMITTEE SYSTEM IS TAKING

SHAPE, AND THERE ARE SIGNS THAT MEMBERS WILL COOPERATE

ACROSS THE AISLE ON SOME ISSUES. HOWEVER, THE

WESTMINSTER-STYLE WHIP SYSTEM WILL LIKELY KEEP PARTY

MEMBERS ON BOTH SIDES OF THE AISLE IN LINE ON THE ISSUES

THAT COUNT MOST. END SUMMARY.

 

————————————

PARLIAMENT, BULLY PULPIT AND THEATRE

————————————

 

2. (U) AFTER A TWO-WEEK BREAK, PARLIAMENT RESUMED ITS

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 03       HARARE 05003 01 OF 03 110846Z

SESSION ON AUGUST 29. THE DEBATE SINCE HAS BEEN

CHARACTERIZED BY A LEVEL OF POLITICAL ATTACKS AND

BACKBENCH SNIPING THAT WOULD PUT LONDON’S PARLIAMENT TO

SHAME. EVERY NEW PARLIAMENTARIAN IS BEING GIVEN A

CHANCE TO MAKE A MAIDEN SPEECH, AND THESE HAVE CONSUMED

MUCH OF THE PARLIAMENT’S TIME. MOST MDC MEMBERS HAVE

USED THESE OPPORTUNITIES TO ATTACK THE GOVERNMENT FOR

ITS FAILURE TO TURN AROUND THE COUNTRY’S SLIDING ECONOMY

WHILE POINTING OUT THE DECLINE IN HEALTH SERVICES OR

LACK OF ROAD MAINTENANCE IN THEIR HOME DISTRICTS. SOME

MDC MEMBERS HAVE ATTACKED MUGABE PERSONALLY FOR THE

VIOLENCE LEADING UP TO THE JUNE PARLIAMENTARY VOTE, AND

THESE SPEECHES HAVE RECEIVED PROMINENT COVERAGE IN THE

INDEPENDENT “DAILY NEWS.” EVELYN MASAITI OF NYANGA

DESCRIBED MUGABE ON AUGUST 31 AS A FATHER WHO HAS

BETRAYED HIS CHILDREN AND WHO IS NO LONGER WORTHY OF

BEING A FATHER. (NOTE: EVELYN MASAITI IS ONE OF THE

PLAINTIFFS IN THE CIVIL SUIT FILED AGAINST THE PRESIDENT

IN NEW YORK. MORE DETAILED INFORMATION ON THE

PLAINTIFFS WILL FOLLOW SEPTEL. END NOTE.) OUTSPOKEN MP

FOR GLEN NORAH, PRISCILLA MISIHAIRABWI-MUSHONGA, RAILED

AGAINST MUGABE ON SEPTEMBER 6, SAYING HIS OPENING SPEECH

TO PARLIAMENT (REFTEL) WAS IRRELEVANT TO THE COUNTRY AND

THAT HE IS THE SOURCE OF THE COUNTRY’S PROBLEMS AND MUST

RESIGN. SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE EMMERSON MNANGAGWA

CAUTIONED THE MP AGAINST BEING DISRESPECTFUL OF THE HEAD

OF STATE, WHICH CAUSED AN UPROAR FROM THE MDC BENCH.

 

3. (U) THE THEATRICS GOT INTO HIGH GEAR ON AUGUST 31

WHEN MISIHAIRABWI THREATENED TO BEAT UP FELLOW MP – AND

WAR VETERANS LEADER – CHENJERAI HUNZVI FOR INTERRUPTING

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 04       HARARE 05003 01 OF 03 110846Z

HER SEVERAL TIMES DURING HER SPEECH ABOUT THE DECLINING

ACCESS TO MEDICINE. DURING THE SEPTEMBER 6 SESSION

ATTENDED BY POLOFF, MDC MEMBERS RETURNED THE FAVOR BY

HECKLING AND JEERING HUNZVI’S MAIDEN SPEECH AND BROKE

INTO LAUGHTER WHEN HUNZVI SUGGESTED FOREIGN DONORS

SHOULD PROVIDE TRACTORS TO HIS CONSTITUENTS. HALFWAY

THROUGH HUNZVI’S RAMBLING DISCOURSE ABOUT THE HISTORY OF

LAND DEPRIVATION BY ZIMBABWE’S COLONIZERS, NEARLY ALL OF

THE MDC MEMBERS WALKED OUT.

 

4. (C) SPEAKER MNANGAGWA SO FAR APPEARS FAIRLY EVEN-

HANDED IN HIS RUNNING OF THE PROCEEDINGS, CHOOSING HIS

INTERJECTIONS SPARINGLY AND JUDICIOUSLY. ALTHOUGH HE

INTERVENES WHEN THE PRESIDENT’S NAME IS DISPARAGED, HE

ALSO QUIETS THE RAUCOUS ZANU-PF BENCH WHEN IT DISRUPTS

AN MDC MOTION. ON THE OTHER HAND, DEPUTY SPEAKER EDNA

MADZONGWE, WHO ACTS AS SPEAKER IN MNANGAGWA’S ABSENCE,

HAS BEEN ACCUSED BY MDC MEMBERS OF STIFLING DEBATE.

DURING THE QUESTION TIME ON AUGUST 30, THE ENTIRE MDC

PARLIAMENTARY DELEGATION THREATENED TO WALK OUT WHEN

MADZONGWE REPEATEDLY REFUSED TO ALLOW QUESTIONS OF A

DEPUTY MINISTER ON THE FAST-TRACK LAND RESETTLEMENT

PROGRAM. LIKE IN THE BRITISH PARLIAMENT, OPPOSITION

MEMBERS PERIODICALLY HAVE THE CHANCE TO QUESTION

GOVERNMENT MINISTERS ABOUT THEIR POLICIES AND ACTIONS.

 

CONFIDENTIAL

 

CONFIDENTIAL     PTQ3329

 

PAGE 01       HARARE 05003 02 OF 03 110846Z

ACTION AF-00

 

INFO LOG-00   NP-00   AID-00   ACQ-00   CEA-01   CIAE-00 CTME-00

DODE-00 DOTE-00 SRPP-00 DS-00   EB-00   EUR-00   EXIM-01

E-00     FAAE-00 VC-00   FRB-00   H-01     TEDE-00 INR-00

IO-00   ITC-01   LAB-01   L-00     VCE-00   AC-01   NSAE-00

OIC-02   OMB-01   OPIC-01 PA-00   PM-00   PRS-00   ACE-00

P-00     SP-00   SSO-00   STR-00   TRSE-00 USIE-00 PMB-00

DSCC-00 DRL-02   G-00     NFAT-00 SAS-00   SWCI-00   /012W

——————83A2F3 110846Z /38

P 110843Z SEP 00

FM AMEMBASSY HARARE

TO SECSTATE WASHDC PRIORITY 7045

INFO NSC WASHDC PRIORITY

SOUTHERN AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY

 

C O N F I D E N T I A L SECTION 02 OF 03 HARARE 005003

 

SIPDIS

 

NSC FOR SENIOR AFRICA DIRECTOR GAYLE SMITH

LONDON FOR CHARLES GURNEY

PARIS FOR BISA WILLIAMS

 

USUN FOR HOLBROOKE

 

E.O. 12958: DECL: 09/11/10

TAGS: PGOV PREL ECON ZI CG

SUBJECT: NEW ZIMBABWE PARLIAMENT STILL FEELING ITS WAY

 

UNTIL THE SITTING OF THIS PARLIAMENT, QUESTION TIME HAD

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 02       HARARE 05003 02 OF 03 110846Z

BEEN A NON-EVENT THAT MINISTERS SELDOM WORRIED ABOUT.

NOW THEY ARE BEING SUBJECTED TO CLOSE AND PUBLIC

SCRUTINY.

 

———————————-

PARLIAMENTARY CRASH COURSE FOR MDC

———————————-

 

5. (C) ON SEPTEMBER 1 MDC MP FOR HARARE EAST TENDAI

BITI INFORMED POLOFF THAT THE MDC’S MAIN GOAL IN

PARLIAMENT IS TO CREATE MORE POLITICAL SPACE FOR THE

OPPOSITION. IN ORDER TO DO THIS, IT WILL FOCUS ON

PRESSING FOR A NEW CONSTITUTION, EXPOSING GOVERNMENT

MISMANAGEMENT, AND GAINING MORE CONTROL OVER THE BUDGET.

THE MDC WILL NOT PUSH FOR THE IMPEACHMENT OF MUGABE,

ACCORDING TO BITI, AS THE TIME WAS NOT YET RIPE. NOR

DOES IT REALISTICALLY EXPECT TO GET FAR WITH ITS

REFORMIST AGENDA WHILE ZANU-PF HAS A PARLIAMENTARY

MAJORITY. BITI ACKNOWLEDGED THAT MDC MPS ARE AT A

DISADVANTAGE IN HOUSE DELIBERATIONS SINCE NOT ALL OF

THEM HAVE MASTERED PARLIAMENTARY PROCEDURES, SUCH AS

TABLING MOTIONS. MANY MDC MPS ARE STILL GRAPPLING WITH

FINDING OFFICE SPACE AND SETTING UP TELEPHONES, AND ARE

RELYING ON PERSONAL FUNDS UNTIL GOVERNMENT MONEY IS

DISBURSED TO COVER THESE EXPENSES.

 

6. (C) MOST MDC MPS ATTENDED TWO WORKSHOPS SPONSORED BY

THE INTERNATIONAL REPUBLICAN INSTITUTUE (IRI) IN JULY

AND AUGUST TO HELP GET THEM UP TO SPEED ON PARLIAMENTARY

PROCEDURE. A SIMILAR PARLIAMENTARY TRAINING WORKSHOP IS

BEING SPONSORED SEPTEMBER 24-25 BY THE ZIMBABWE CHAMBER

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 03       HARARE 05003 02 OF 03 110846Z

OF COMMERCE AND THE CONFEDERATION OF ZIMBABWEAN

INDUSTRIES (CZI), AND WILL INCLUDE MPS FROM BOTH ZANU-PF

AND THE MDC. ACCORDING TO THE IRI RESPRESENTATIVE HERE,

AGENTS FROM THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE ORGANIZATION (CIO)

SHOWED UP AT THE JULY WORKSHOP FOR MDC MEMBERS, ASKING

QUESTIONS ABOUT WHO WAS SPONSORING THE EVENT AND WHO WAS

ATTENDING IT. THE ENCOUNTER DEMONSTRATED THE SENIOR

GOVERNMENT LEADERSHIP’S ONGOING MISTRUST OF THE MDC.

DESPITE THE GOZ’S MISTRUST, BITI STATED THAT MDC MEMBERS

ARE WORKING BEHIND THE SCENES WITH NEWLY ELECTED, MOSTLY

YOUNGER ZANU-PF MPS, WHO SEEM RECEPTIVE TO REACHING AN

UNDERSTANDING ON A VARIETY OF SECONDARY ISSUES.

HOWEVER, BITI DOES NOT EXPECT ANY OF THE ZANU-PF MPS TO

BREAK RANKS WITH THE PARTY ON THE CRUCIAL ISSUES OF THE

DAY SUCH AS LAND REFORM.

 

—————————–

REMAKING THE COMMITTEE SYSTEM

—————————–

 

7. (C) SINCE THE MDC NOW CONTROLS MORE THAN A THIRD OF

PARLIAMENT, MUCH IS BEING DONE TO REVAMP THE BODY’S

COMMITTEE SYSTEM, ACCORDING TO AUSTIN ZVOMA, THE CLERK

OF PARLIAMENT AND HIGHEST RANKING CIVIL SERVANT IN

PARLIAMENT. TWO OF THE BIGGEST CHANGES HAVE BEEN THE

REFORMULATION OF PORTFOLIO COMMITTEES TO REFLECT THE NEW

CABINET MINISTRIES AND THE INTRODUCTION OF “SHADOW”

MINISTERS, WHO REPRESENT THE OPPOSITION IN PARLIAMENT ON

ISSUES DEALT WITH BY THE GOVERNMENT MINISTRIES. THE

STANDING RULES AND ORDER COMMITTEE, COMPRISED OF BOTH

ZANU-PF AND MDC MEMBERS, HAS ALREADY MET AND DETERMINED

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 04       HARARE 05003 02 OF 03 110846Z

THAT THE CHAIRMANSHIPS OF THE 12 PORTFOLIO COMMITTEES

WILL BE DIVIDED EVENLY BETWEEN ZANU-PF AND MDC. THE IRI

REPRESENTATIVE INFORMED US THAT THE MDC IS LIKELY TO

CHAIR THE EDUCATION, FOREIGN AFFAIRS, JUSTICE,

ENVIRONMENT, AND HEALTH COMMITTEES. BESIDES THE

STANDING RULES AND ORDER COMMITTEE, THERE ARE NORMALLY

FIVE OTHER STANDING COMMITTEES THAT INCLUDE THE PUBLIC

ACCOUNTS COMMITTEE, WHICH OVERSEES GOVERNMENT SPENDING

LEGISLATED BY PARLIAMENT, AND THE ALL-IMPORTANT BUDGET

AND FINANCE COMMITTEE, WHICH APPROVES THE GOVERNMENT’S

BUDGET. ZANU-PF WILL PROBABLY KEEP THE CHAIRMANSHIP OF

THE MORE INFLUENTIAL STANDING COMMITTEES, SUCH AS BUDGET

AND FINANCE. PARLIAMENT IS DUE TO APPOINT THE

COMMITTEES AND THEIR CHAIRMEN ON SEPTEMBER 12.

 

8. (C) THE BUDGET AND FINANCE COMMITTEE IS DUE TO BEGIN

CONSIDERING THE GOVERNMENT’S BUDGET IN LATE OCTOBER. IT

WILL SCRUTINIZE THE BUDGET BEHIND CLOSED DOORS, ZVOMA

SAYS, BEFORE SUBMITTING IT TO THE WHOLE HOUSE FOR

DEBATE. THE DEADLINE FOR PASSAGE OF THE BUDGET IS

JANUARY 1, THE BEGINNING OF THE NEW FISCAL YEAR. THE

GOVERNMENT CANNOT LEGALLY LEVY TAXES WITHOUT BUDGETARY

APPROVAL FROM PARLIAMENT, THE CLERK STATED. (COMMENT:

GIVEN THE NEW MAKEUP OF THIS PARLIAMENT, BUDGETARY

DEBATES ARE BOUND TO BE HEATED AND HIGHLY CONTENTIOUS.

 

CONFIDENTIAL

 

CONFIDENTIAL     PTQ3330

 

PAGE 01       HARARE 05003 03 OF 03 110846Z

ACTION AF-00

 

INFO LOG-00   NP-00   AID-00   ACQ-00   CEA-01   CIAE-00 CTME-00

DODE-00 DOTE-00 SRPP-00 DS-00   EB-00   EUR-00   EXIM-01

E-00     FAAE-00 VC-00   FRB-00   H-01     TEDE-00 INR-00

IO-00   ITC-01   LAB-01   L-00     VCE-00   AC-01   NSAE-00

OIC-02   OMB-01   OPIC-01 PA-00   PM-00   PRS-00   ACE-00

P-00     SP-00   SSO-00   STR-00   TRSE-00 USIE-00 PMB-00

DSCC-00 DRL-02   G-00     NFAT-00 SAS-00   SWCI-00   /012W

——————83A2F7 110846Z /38

P 110843Z SEP 00

FM AMEMBASSY HARARE

TO SECSTATE WASHDC PRIORITY 7046

INFO NSC WASHDC PRIORITY

SOUTHERN AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY

 

C O N F I D E N T I A L SECTION 03 OF 03 HARARE 005003

 

SIPDIS

 

NSC FOR SENIOR AFRICA DIRECTOR GAYLE SMITH

LONDON FOR CHARLES GURNEY

PARIS FOR BISA WILLIAMS

 

USUN FOR HOLBROOKE

 

E.O. 12958: DECL: 09/11/10

TAGS: PGOV PREL ECON ZI CG

SUBJECT: NEW ZIMBABWE PARLIAMENT STILL FEELING ITS WAY

 

FINANCE MINISTER SIMBA MAKONI DREW LOUD JEERS OF “SHAME,

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 02       HARARE 05003 03 OF 03 110846Z

SHAME” FROM MDC MEMBERS ON AUGUST 30 WHEN HE DISCLOSED

THAT THE GOZ HAD SPENT NEARLY US$200 MILLION ON ITS

INTERVENTION IN THE DROC. END COMMENT.)

 

————————-

REAL ROLE FOR PARTY WHIPS

————————-

 

9. (C) ANOTHER IMPORTANT DIFFERENCE WITH THIS

PARLIAMENT IS THE NEW PROMINENCE OF PARTY WHIPS. IN

PREVIOUS PARLIAMENTS, WITH ZANU-PF’S HUGE MAJORITY,

THERE WAS LITTLE CHANCE OF ANY MEASURE BEING DEFEATED.

IF SOME PARLIAMENTARIANS APPEARED TO WAIVER IN THEIR

SUPPORT OF A PARTICULAR BILL, ZANU-PF WOULD RELY

PRIMARILY ON SENIOR GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS TO APPLY THE

NECESSARY PRESSURE (EMMERSON MNANGAGWA, AS JUSTICE

MINISTER, WAS NOTABLE IN THIS ROLE). NOW, WITH A

SIZEABLE OPPOSITION, THE POTENTIAL FOR DEFECTION IS MUCH

GREATER, AND INDIVIDUAL MPS ON BOTH SIDES OF THE AISLE

WILL HAVE POTENTIALLY GREATER BARGAINING POWER WITH

THEIR RESPECTIVE PARTIES. HENCE, THERE IS A GREATER

NEED FOR THE WHIPS TO ENSURE THAT PARTY MEMBERS STAY IN

LINE AND VOTE WITH THE PARTY ON KEY MOTIONS AND BILLS.

BOTH ZANU-PF AND MDC HAVE ALREADY HAD TO REIGN IN

RECALCITRANT MPS FOR PUBLIC STATEMENTS THAT WENT AGAINST

PARTY POLICY.

 

10. (C) COMMENT: ZIMBABWE’S FIFTH PARLIAMENT IS STILL

GOING THROUGH A TUMULTUOUS INFANCY, AND IT IS LIKELY TO

HAVE MANY TANTRUMS BEFORE IT GROWS UP. HOWEVER, IT IS

DIFFICULT TO IMAGINE EVEN A MORE MATURE PARLIAMENT

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 03       HARARE 05003 03 OF 03 110846Z

ALTERING GOVERNMENT POLICY ON KEY ISSUES SUCH AS LAND

RESETTLEMENT, ECONOMIC REFORM, AND MILITARY ENGAGEMENT

IN THE DROC. ZANU-PF REMAINS IN FIRM CONTROL OF ALL THE

INSTRUMENTS OF GOVERNMENT, INCLUDING PARLIAMENT. IF

NOTHING ELSE, THE REVITALIZED LEGISLATURE IS LIKELY TO

RAISE THE PROFILE OF ORDINARY CITIZENS’ CONCERNS, SUCH

AS PRICE INCREASES AND THE DECLINE IN GOVERNMENT

SERVICES. THIS WILL INCREASE THE PRESSURE ON THE

GOVERNMENT TO GET ITS FINANCIAL HOUSE IN ORDER SO THAT

IT CAN AT LEAST START TACKLING PROBLEMS IN A MEANINGFUL

WAY BEFORE THE 2002 ELECTION SEASON. PARLIAMENT RISKS

DISENCHANTING THE PUBLIC AND RELEGATING ITSELF TO

IRRELEVANCY, HOWEVER, IF IT CANNOT GET PAST THE STAGE OF

CONSTANT POLITICAL AND PERSONAL ATTACKS. THE BUDGET

BATTLE LATER THIS YEAR WILL TEST THE NEW PARLIAMENT’S

METTLE AND GIVE US A GOOD INDICATION OF WHETHER THIS

PARLIAMENT WILL HAVE A SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON TURNING THE

COUNTRY AROUND.

 

MCDONALD

 

CONFIDENTIAL

 

>

(51 VIEWS)

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Charles Rukuni
The Insider is a political and business bulletin about Zimbabwe, edited by Charles Rukuni. Founded in 1990, it was a printed 12-page subscription only newsletter until 2003 when Zimbabwe's hyper-inflation made it impossible to continue printing.

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