Land invasions were aimed at cutting financial support for MDC-Coltart


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Movement for Democratic Change Bulawayo legislator David Coltart told United States embassy officials that President Robert Mugabe’s real goal behind the land reform programme was to destroy commercial agriculture in order to eliminate what the President believed was the most important base of financial support for the MDC in Zimbabwe.

According to the embassy the Commercial Farmers Union agreed with this assessment.

Coltart, who was described as a long standing embassy contact, said Mugabe did not care if this resulted in the utter destruction of Zimbabwe’s economy.

He said he had been told by Obert Mpofu, then governor of Matabeleland North, that it did not matter if the economy was destroyed because the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front could rebuild it just as the Japanese rebuilt their economy after World War II.

 

Full cable:

 

Viewing cable 00HARARE6190, VIOLENCE ON ZIMBABWE COMMERCIAL FARMS

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Reference ID

Created

Released

Classification

Origin

00HARARE6190

2000-11-02 16:25

2011-08-30 01:44

CONFIDENTIAL

Embassy Harare

This record is a partial extract of the original cable. The full text of the original cable is not available.

 

 

 

CONFIDENTIAL     PTQ4224

 

PAGE 01       HARARE 06190 01 OF 03 021626Z

ACTION AF-00

 

INFO LOG-00   NP-00   AGRE-00 AID-00   AMAD-00 ACQ-00   CIAE-00

INL-00   DODE-00 SRPP-00 DS-00   EB-00   EUR-00   VC-00

FRB-00   H-01     TEDE-00 INR-00   IO-00   LAB-01   L-00

VCE-00   AC-01   NSAE-00 OIC-02   OMB-01   OPIC-01 PA-00

PM-00   PRS-00   ACE-00   P-00     SCT-00   SP-00   STR-00

USIE-00 PMB-00   DSCC-00 PRM-01   DRL-02   G-00     NFAT-00

SAS-00     /010W

——————9A0267 021626Z /38

FM AMEMBASSY HARARE

TO SECSTATE WASHDC PRIORITY 7507

INFO NSC WASHDC PRIORITY

DEPT OF TREASURY WASHDC

USDOC WASHDC

SOUTHERN AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY

AMEMBASSY NAIROBI

C O N F I D E N T I A L SECTION 01 OF 03 HARARE 006190

 

SIPDIS

 

NSC FOR SENIOR AFRICA DIRECTOR GAYLE SMITH

USDOC FOR DHENKE-ROGERS

LONDON FOR CGURNEY

PARIS FOR BISA WILLIAMS

NAIROBI FOR PFLAUMER

PASS USAID FOR AFR/SD – DWELLER, AFR/SA – CPALMA,

NNEWMAN, AA/AFR – VDERRYCK, AND A/AID – RMCCALL

 

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 02       HARARE 06190 01 OF 03 021626Z

USTR FOR ROSA WHITAKER

 

E.O. 12958: DECL 11/02/10

TAGS: PHUM EAGR PREL EAID ZI

SUBJECT: VIOLENCE ON ZIMBABWE COMMERCIAL FARMS

INCREASING AS FAST-TRACK LAND REFORM PROGRAM ACCELERATES

 

CLASSIFIED BY AMBASSADOR TOM MCDONALD FOR REASONS 1.5

(B) AND (D).

 

1. (C) SUMMARY: WITH THE BEGINNING OF THE RAINS ON

OCTOBER 27, VIOLENCE ON COMMERCIAL FARMS HAS INCREASED

AS THE GOVERNMENT OF ZIMBABWE (GOZ) ACCELERATES ITS

FAST-TRACK LAND REFORM AND RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM TO BEAT

THE ONSET OF THE PLANTING SEASON. THE RESULT HAS BEEN

DISORDER AND CONFUSION ON OCCUPIED FARMS. THREE WHITE

COMMERCIAL FARMERS WERE VIOLENTLY AND SERIOUSLY

ASSAULTED IN THE LAST TEN DAYS. A GOZ MINISTER APPEARED

ON NATIONAL TELEVISION TELLING THE POPULACE THAT THE GOZ

DID NOT HAVE THE RESOURCES TO DEMARCATE LAND FOR

RESETTLEMENT, SO THEY SHOULD DO IT THEMSELVES. HE ADDED

THAT THE GOZ WILL FORMALIZE SUCH ACTIONS IN THE FUTURE.

REPORTS CONTINUE TO REACH THE EMBASSY THAT MILITARY AND

POLICE VEHICLES ARE BEING USED TO FERRY PEOPLE TO OCCUPY

FARMS, AND MILITARY AND POLICE OFFICERS ALSO ARE

CLAIMING LAND FOR THEMSELVES. ON NOVEMBER 1 THE ZANU-PF

MAJORITY IN PARLIAMENT PASSED AN AMENDMENT TO THE LAND

ACQUISITION ACT TO CODIFY FORMALLY THE GOZ’S LAND REFORM

PROGRAM. MDC MP DAVID COLTART INFORMED ECONOFF THAT

MUGABE’S INTENTION IS TO DESTROY COMMERCIAL FARMING,

EVEN IF IT WRECKS THE ZIMBABWE ECONOMY, BECAUSE HE

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 03       HARARE 06190 01 OF 03 021626Z

CONSIDERS COMMERCIAL FARMERS TO BE ONE OF THE PRINCIPAL

FINANCIAL SUPPORT BASES OF THE MDC. ALL OF THESE

DEVELOPMENTS POINT TO THE COLLAPSE OF COMMERCIAL

AGRICULTURE, AND BODE ILL FOR ZIMBABWE’S FUTURE FOOD

SECURITY. END SUMMARY.

 

——————————————

VIOLENCE INCREASING AS RAINY SEASON BEGINS

——————————————

 

2. (C) WITH THE BEGINNING OF THE RAINY SEASON ACROSS

ZIMBABWE ON OCTOBER 27, THE LAND RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM

HAS REACHED A FEVER PITCH. THERE ARE NUMEROUS CREDIBLE

REPORTS OF FARM OCCUPIERS PREVENTING COMMERCIAL FARMERS

FROM PLANTING, STATING THAT THE FARMS NO LONGER BELONG

TO THEM. OTHER REPORTS SAY FARM OCCUPIERS ARE UPROOTING

COMMERCIAL CROPS IN ORDER TO PLANT THEIR OWN MAIZE, OR

BUILDING SHACKS ON TOP OF FRESHLY PLANTED FIELDS,

REGARDLESS OF WHETHER OR NOT THE COMMERCIAL FARMS HAVE

BEEN GAZETTED BY THE GOVERNMENT FOR ACQUISITION. TREE

CUTTING AND POACHING OF BOTH DOMESTIC AND GAME ANIMALS

IS RAMPANT. THREATS OF VIOLENCE BY WAR VETERANS ARE

INCREASING, WITH THE THREATS FOLLOWED UP BY ATTACKS ON

COMMERCIAL FARMERS. ONE ASSAULT BY WAR VETERANS ON A

FARMER LED TO A BROADER VIOLENT ALTERCATION BETWEEN WAR

VETERANS AND FARM WORKERS WHO CAME TO HIS RESCUE. A

GROUP OF 150 UNKNOWN ASSAILANTS ALLEGEDLY ATTACKED A

GROUP OF TEN RECENTLY RESETTLED PEASANTS IN THEIR SHACKS

THE NIGHT OF OCTOBER 28. FARM WORKERS ARE ANGRY AT THE

LOSS OF THEIR MEANS OF SURVIVAL, AND THIS IS LEADING TO

INCREASING CONFRONTATIONS AND VIOLENCE. THE COMMERCIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 04       HARARE 06190 01 OF 03 021626Z

FARMERS UNION (CFU) BELIEVES THAT MUGABE’S THREAT TO END

RECONCILIATION WITH WHITES IN ZIMBABWE HAS EMBOLDENED

THE WAR VETERANS AND ALSO ADDED TO THE INCREASED

VIOLENCE.

 

——————————————— –

THREE COMMERCIAL FARMERS ASSAULTED IN TEN DAYS

——————————————— –

 

3. (C) BETWEEN OCTOBER 22 AND OCTOBER 31 THREE WHITE

COMMERCIAL FARMERS WERE VIOLENTLY ASSAULTED BY WAR

VETERANS ON THEIR FARMS. ON OCTOBER 22 A FARMER ON

DAWMILL FARM IN MASHONALAND CENTRAL PROVINCE ASKED

OCCUPIERS TO MOVE THEIR CATTLE AND SHEEP THAT WERE

BLOCKING A FARM ROAD. THEREAFTER, HE WAS SET UPON BY A

GROUP OF MEN WHO KNOCKED HIM TO THE GROUND AND VIOLENTLY

KICKED HIM UNTIL HE PASSED OUT. ON OCTOBER 31 A FARMER

ON NYAMWANGA FARM, ALSO IN MASHONALAND CENTRAL PROVINCE,

WAS ATTEMPTING TO PROCEED WITH COTTON PLANTING WHEN A

GROUP OF WAR VETERANS SET UPON HIM WITH AX HANDLES AND

BEAT HIM UNCONSCIOUS. WHEN HIS FARM WORKERS CAME TO HIS

RESCUE A SCUFFLE ENSUED THAT ENDED WITH A SCORE OF FARM

WORKERS AND WAR VETERANS REQUIRING MEDICAL TREATMENT FOR

THEIR INJURIES. ON OCTOBER 26 A FARMER IN MANICALAND

PROVINCE WAS VIOLENTLY ASSAULTED IN HIS FARMHOUSE,

 

CONFIDENTIAL

 

CONFIDENTIAL     PTQ4225

 

PAGE 01       HARARE 06190 02 OF 03 021626Z

ACTION AF-00

 

INFO LOG-00   NP-00   AGRE-00 AID-00   AMAD-00 ACQ-00   CIAE-00

INL-00   DODE-00 SRPP-00 DS-00   EB-00   EUR-00   VC-00

FRB-00   H-01     TEDE-00 INR-00   IO-00   LAB-01   L-00

VCE-00   AC-01   NSAE-00 OIC-02   OMB-01   OPIC-01 PA-00

PM-00   PRS-00   ACE-00   P-00     SCT-00   SP-00   STR-00

USIE-00 PMB-00   DSCC-00 PRM-01   DRL-02   G-00    NFAT-00

SAS-00     /010W

——————9A0274 021626Z /38

P 021625Z NOV 00

FM AMEMBASSY HARARE

TO SECSTATE WASHDC PRIORITY 7508

INFO NSC WASHDC PRIORITY

DEPT OF TREASURY WASHDC

USDOC WASHDC

SOUTHERN AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY

AMEMBASSY NAIROBI

 

C O N F I D E N T I A L SECTION 02 OF 03 HARARE 006190

 

SIPDIS

 

NSC FOR SENIOR AFRICA DIRECTOR GAYLE SMITH

USDOC FOR DHENKE-ROGERS

LONDON FOR CGURNEY

PARIS FOR BISA WILLIAMS

NAIROBI FOR PFLAUMER

PASS USAID FOR AFR/SD – DWELLER, AFR/SA – CPALMA,

NNEWMAN, AA/AFR – VDERRYCK, AND A/AID – RMCCALL

 

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 02       HARARE 06190 02 OF 03 021626Z

USTR FOR ROSA WHITAKER

 

E.O. 12958: DECL 11/02/10

TAGS: PHUM EAGR PREL EAID ZI

SUBJECT: VIOLENCE ON ZIMBABWE COMMERCIAL FARMS

INCREASING AS FAST-TRACK LAND REFORM PROGRAM ACCELERATES

 

PURPORTEDLY BY ROBBERS. (COMMENT: AGAINST THE BACKDROP

OF THE LAWLESSNESS, CHAOS, AND ANARCHY THAT IS OCCURRING

ON COMMERCIAL FARMS IN THE NAME OF PRESIDENT MUGABE’S

FAST-TRACK LAND REFORM AND RESETTLEMENT, IT IS HARD TO

BELIEVE THAT THIS ASSAULT IS NOT LINKED TO THE LAND

ISSUE. END COMMENT.)

 

——————————————— ——-

A GOZ MINISTER TELLS PEASANTS TO PICK THEIR OWN LAND

——————————————— ——-

 

4. (C) IGNATIUS CHOMBO, THE MINISTER OF LOCAL

GOVERNMENT, PUBLIC WORKS AND NATIONAL HOUSING, WHO IS

ALSO THE CHAIRMAN OF THE GOZ LAND TASK FORCE, APPEARED

ON ZBC TELEVISION ADDRESSING A GROUP OF PEASANTS IN THE

DARWENDALE/TRELAWNEY AREA. HE TOLD THE ASSEMBLED GROUP

TO GO AHEAD AND PARCEL OUT FARMS TO THEMSELVES BECAUSE

OF A SHORTAGE OF GOVERNMENT TECHNICIANS TO DEMARCATE

PLOTS. HE STATED “WE WILL HAVE TO ATTEND TO THAT LATER.

GO AHEAD AND RESETTLE YOURSELVES IN TIME FOR THE RAINS.”

THIS STATEMENT HAS GIVEN A GREEN LIGHT TO LANDLESS

PEOPLE, AND ANYONE ELSE, TO DESCEND ON COMMERCIAL FARMS,

WHETHER GAZETTED BY THE GOZ FOR COMPULSORY ACQUISITION

OR NOT, AND TO DECIDE AMONG THEMSELVES WHO GETS WHAT.

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 03       HARARE 06190 02 OF 03 021626Z

THE FARM WORKERS WHO LIVE AND WORK ON THESE FARMS ARE

OFTEN NOT WILLING TO STAND ASIDE AND ALLOW THEIR

LIVELIHOODS TO BE DESTROYED. THE RESULT IS AN INCREASE

IN THE NUMBER OF CLASHES BETWEEN FARM INVADERS AND FARM

WORKERS.

 

——————————————— –

CLEAR SIGNS OF POLICE AND MILITARY INVOLVEMENT

——————————————— –

 

5. (C) THE EMBASSY IS RECEIVING NEW REPORTS THAT

ZIMBABWE POLICE AND MILITARY VEHICLES ARE BEING USED TO

FERRY FARM INVADERS TO COMMERCIAL FARMS. THERE ARE ALSO

REPORTS THAT POLICE AND MILITARY PERSONNEL (BOTH ARMY

AND AIR FORCE) ARE INCREASINGLY GOING TO FARMS TO STAKE

OUT LAND FOR THEMSELVES. IN ONE REPORT FROM THE CFU, A

ZIMBABWE AIR FORCE HELICOPTER FLEW OVER A FARM NEAR FORT

MARTIN TO VERIFY WHETHER THE COMMERCIAL FARMER WAS

COMPLYING WITH ORDERS NOT TO PLANT.

 

——————————-

ZANU-PF PUSHES AMENDED LAND ACT

——————————-

 

6. (C) IN THE MIDST OF THE INCREASING VIOLENCE AND FARM

OCCUPATIONS, ZANU-PF PUSHED THROUGH PARLIAMENT AN

AMENDMENT TO THE LAND ACQUISITION ACT CODIFYING

PRESIDENT MUGABE’S APRIL DECREE UNDER THE PRESIDENTIAL

POWERS ACT ALTERING THE LAW. THIS LEGISLATION IS

INTENDED TO NEGATE THE IMPACT OF THE SUPREME COURT

DECISION IN A LANDMARK LAWSUIT THAT THE CFU FILED

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 04       HARARE 06190 02 OF 03 021626Z

AGAINST MUGABE FOR TAKING UNCONSTITUTIONAL ACTIONS IN

HIS FAST-TRACK LAND REFORM PLAN UNDER THE PRESIDENTIAL

POWERS ACT, AMONG OTHER CHARGES. (COMMENT: THE SUPREME

COURT IS TO BEGIN HEARING THE CFU CASE ON NOVEMBER 6 AND

IS WIDELY EXPECTED TO RULE IN FAVOR OF THE PLAINTIFF.

END COMMENT).

 

—————————–

MDC MP DAVID COLTART COMMENTS

—————————–

 

7. (C) MDC MP DAVID COLTART, A LONG-STANDING EMBASSY

CONTACT TOLD EMBASSY OFFICIALS ON NOVEMBER 1 THAT WHAT

WAS OCCURRING IN THE NAME OF LAND REFORM AND

RESETTLEMENT WAS PART OF A MASTER PLAN BY MUGABE. HE

SAID THAT WHILE IT WAS NOT BEING IMPLEMENTED IN A

PARTICULARLY ORGANIZED FASHION, IT WAS BEING PLANNED AND

LED BY THE GOVERNMENT. HE BELIEVES THAT THIS IS CLEARLY

SUBSTANTIATED BY THE ROLE THE WAR VETERANS HAD PLAYED IN

LEADING THE OCCUPATIONS, AND THE USE OF POLICE AND

MILITARY VEHICLES TO FERRY OCCUPIERS TO FARMS. IN SOME

INSTANCES, HE BELIEVES THAT PEOPLE ARE BEING BROUGHT TO

OCCUPY FARMS AGAINST THEIR WILL, OR AT LEAST UNDER FALSE

PRETENSES. HE SAID THAT MANY FARMERS TELL STORIES OF

LARGE NUMBERS OF PEOPLE BEING BROUGHT TO THEIR FARMS,

 

CONFIDENTIAL

 

CONFIDENTIAL     PTQ4227

 

PAGE 01       HARARE 06190 03 OF 03 021627Z

ACTION AF-00

 

INFO LOG-00   NP-00   AGRE-00 AID-00  AMAD-00 ACQ-00   CIAE-00

INL-00   DODE-00 SRPP-00 DS-00   EB-00   EUR-00   VC-00

FRB-00   H-01     TEDE-00 INR-00   IO-00   LAB-01   L-00

VCE-00   AC-01   NSAE-00 OIC-02   OMB-01   OPIC-01 PA-00

PM-00   PRS-00   ACE-00   P-00     SCT-00   SP-00   STR-00

USIE-00 PMB-00   DSCC-00 PRM-01   DRL-02   G-00     NFAT-00

SAS-00     /010W

——————9A0287 021627Z /38

P 021625Z NOV 00

FM AMEMBASSY HARARE

TO SECSTATE WASHDC PRIORITY 7509

INFO NSC WASHDC PRIORITY

DEPT OF TREASURY WASHDC

USDOC WASHDC

SOUTHERN AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY

AMEMBASSY NAIROBI

 

C O N F I D E N T I A L SECTION 03 OF 03 HARARE 006190

 

SIPDIS

 

NSC FOR SENIOR AFRICA DIRECTOR GAYLE SMITH

USDOC FOR DHENKE-ROGERS

LONDON FOR CGURNEY

PARIS FOR BISA WILLIAMS

NAIROBI FOR PFLAUMER

PASS USAID FOR AFR/SD – DWELLER, AFR/SA – CPALMA,

NNEWMAN, AA/AFR – VDERRYCK, AND A/AID – RMCCALL

 

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 02       HARARE 06190 03 OF 03 021627Z

USTR FOR ROSA WHITAKER

 

E.O. 12958: DECL 11/02/10

TAGS: PHUM EAGR PREL EAID ZI

SUBJECT: VIOLENCE ON ZIMBABWE COMMERCIAL FARMS

INCREASING AS FAST-TRACK LAND REFORM PROGRAM ACCELERATES

 

AND WITHIN A FEW DAYS MOST DRIFT AWAY. CFU EXECUTIVES

HAVE CONFIRMED THIS WITH ECONOFF.

 

8. (C) COLTART STATED THAT MUGABE’S REAL GOAL IS TO

DESTROY COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE IN ZIMBABWE IN ORDER TO

ELIMINATE WHAT THE PRESIDENT BELIEVES TO BE THE MOST

IMPORTANT BASE OF FINANCIAL SUPPORT FOR THE MDC IN

ZIMBABWE. CFU EXECUTIVES ALSO AGREE WITH THIS

ASSESSMENT. COLTART WENT SO FAR AS TO SAY THAT

PRESIDENT MUGABE DOES NOT CARE IF THIS RESULTS IN THE

UTTER DESTRUCTION OF ZIMBABWE’S ECONOMY. ACCORDING TO

COLTART, ONE OF MUGABE’S CLOSEST CONFIDANTS, OBERT

MPOFU, THE CONTROVERSIAL GOVERNOR OF MATABELELAND NORTH

PROVINCE (HE HAS PROCLAIMED THAT ONLY ZANU-PF SUPPORTERS

WILL BE RESETTLED IN HIS PROVINCE) HAS STATED THAT IT

MATTERS NOT IF THE ECONOMY IS DESTROYED, FOR THE RULING

PARTY WILL THEN REBUILD IT JUST AS THE JAPANESE REBUILT

THEIR ECONOMY AFTER WORLD WAR II.

 

——————————————— ——-

ZIMBABWE’S FUTURE FOOD SECURITY HANGS IN THE BALANCE

——————————————— ——-

 

9. (C) ALL OF THE ABOVE BODES VERY ILL FOR ZIMBABWE’S

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 03       HARARE 06190 03 OF 03 021627Z

FUTURE FOOD SECURITY. THE FINANCIAL PROBLEMS OF THE

GRAIN MARKETING BOARD (GMB) PARASTATAL RESULTED IN ITS

DELAYED PURCHASE OF LAST YEAR’S BUMPER MAIZE CROP. ONLY

IN THE LAST TWO WEEKS HAS THE GMB RECEIVED A LINE OF

CREDIT FROM THE GOZ ALLOWING IT TO BEGIN PURCHASING

MAIZE. ZIMBABWE’S COMMUNAL FARMERS, WHO PRODUCE ROUGHLY

60% OF THE COUNTRY’S MAIZE, DEPEND ON SALES TO THE GMB

OF THEIR HARVEST TO SUPPLY THE FUNDS NECESSARY TO BUY

THE SEED, FERTILIZER, AND OTHER INPUTS NEEDED TO PLANT

THE FOLLOWING YEAR’S CROP. WITH THE DELAY IN PURCHASES,

MANY COMMUNAL FARMERS HAVE NOT BEEN ABLE TO BEGIN

PLANTING THIS YEAR’S MAIZE CROP. THIS SITUATION IS

WORSENED BY THE DRAMATIC RISE IN THE PRICE OF FERTILIZER

AND DIESEL FUEL, BOTH CRITICAL INPUTS TO PLANTING MAIZE.

COLTART STATED THAT THE GMB HAS ONLY PURCHASED 30% OF

THE HISTORICAL AMOUNT OF GRAIN BAGS THAT IT USES TO BAG

UP COMMUNAL FARMERS’ MAIZE AFTER PURCHASE. ACCORDING TO

COLTART, THE MAJORITY OF LAST YEAR’S MAIZE CROP IS JUST

SITTING OUT IN THE OPEN ON COMMUNAL FARMS, NOW GETTING

RAINED ON, A FACT THAT WILL RESULT IN ITS BECOMING UNFIT

FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION. MEANWHILE, ACCORDING TO THE CFU,

COMMERCIAL FARMERS, WHO NORMALLY ACCOUNT FOR 40% OF THE

NATION’S MAIZE CROP, ARE GOING TO PLANT 55% LESS MAIZE.

THIS DECISION IS DUE TO LOW MAIZE PRICES, UNCERTAINTY

THAT THEY WILL BE ABLE TO HARVEST THEIR CROP AT THE END

OF THE SEASON, AS WELL AS UNCERTAINTY THAT THE GMB WILL

BE ABLE TO BUY THEIR CROP. THESE SIGNS INDICATE THAT

THE POSSIBILITY IS INCREASING THAT ZIMBABWE WILL FACE A

MAJOR SHORTFALL IN ITS MAIZE CROP NEXT YEAR, AT A TIME

WHEN THE GOZ WILL LACK THE NECESSARY FOREIGN EXCHANGE TO

PAY FOR IMPORTS.

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 04       HARARE 06190 03 OF 03 021627Z

 

10. (C) COMMENT: THE GOZ’S CONTINUING “DAMN THE

TORPEDOES” ATTITUDE IN PURSUING THE POORLY (IF AT ALL)

PLANNED FAST-TRACK LAND REFORM AND RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM,

REGARDLESS OF THE PREDICTED COST TO COMMERCIAL

AGRICULTURE, INCLUDING EXPORT CROPS, IS EXTREMELY

WORRISOME. IT CALLS INTO QUESTION THE FUTURE VIABILITY

OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMY AND THE AVAILABILITY OF FOOD FOR

12 MILLION ZIMBABWEANS. END COMMENT.

 

MCDONALD

 

CONFIDENTIAL

 

>

 

(61 VIEWS)

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Charles Rukuni
The Insider is a political and business bulletin about Zimbabwe, edited by Charles Rukuni. Founded in 1990, it was a printed 12-page subscription only newsletter until 2003 when Zimbabwe's hyper-inflation made it impossible to continue printing.

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