Coltart’s bodyguards arrested


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Three bodyguards of Bulawayo legislator David Coltart were arrested after videotaping a large bus off-loading young men with shaved heads whom they believed were troublemakers or illegal voters brought in by the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front in the run-up to the Bulawayo mayoral elections of 2001.

The bodyguards were detained and charged with firearms violations after a search of their houses turned up 17 guns.

Coltart insisted that his bodyguards had licenses for each of the firearms.

 

Full cable:


Viewing cable 01HARARE2666, BULAWAYO MAYORAL VOTE AND MAKONI WEST BY-ELECTION MARRED

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Reference ID

Created

Released

Classification

Origin

01HARARE2666

2001-09-10 15:38

2011-08-30 01:44

CONFIDENTIAL

Embassy Harare

This record is a partial extract of the original cable. The full text of the original cable is not available.

 

101538Z Sep 01

 

 

CONFIDENTIAL     PTQ1670

 

PAGE 01       HARARE 02666 01 OF 03 101552Z

ACTION AF-00

 

INFO LOG-00   NP-00   AID-00   AMAD-00 CIAE-00 INL-00   DODE-00

SRPP-00 DS-00   EB-00   EUR-00   VC-00   H-01     TEDE-00

INR-00   IO-00   LAB-01   L-00     VCE-00   AC-01   NSAE-00

OIC-02   OMB-01   OPIC-01 CAEX-01 PA-00   PM-00   PRS-00

ACE-00   P-00     SP-00   STR-00   TRSE-00 USIE-00 PMB-00

DSCC-00 PRM-01   DRL-02   G-00     NFAT-00 SAS-00     /011W

——————1CFF77 101553Z /38

FM AMEMBASSY HARARE

TO SECSTATE WASHDC PRIORITY 9677

INFO NSC WASHDC PRIORITY

SOUTHERN AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY

AMEMBASSY NAIROBI

C O N F I D E N T I A L SECTION 01 OF 03 HARARE 002666

 

SIPDIS

 

NSC FOR SENIOR AFRICA DIRECTOR JENDAYI FRAZER

LONDON FOR GURNEY

PARIS FOR BISA WILLIAMS

NAIROBI FOR PFLAUMER

 

E.O. 12958: DECL. 09/10/11

TAGS: PGOV PHUM ZI

SUBJECT: BULAWAYO MAYORAL VOTE AND MAKONI WEST BY-ELECTION MARRED

BY IRREGULARITIES

 

 

CLASSIFIED BY POLITICAL SECTION CHIEF MATT HARRINGTON. REASONS:

1.5 (B) AND (D).

 

REF: HARARE 2642

 

SUMMARY

——-

 

1. (C) THE SEPTEMBER 8-9 BULAWAYO MAYORAL ELECTION AND

PARLIAMENTARY BY-ELECTION IN MAKONI WEST WERE MARRED BY MISSION-

OBSERVED IRREGULARITIES, WHICH WOULD LEAD US TO CHARACTERIZE THEM

RESPECTIVELY AS “FLAWED” AND “NOT FREE AND FAIR.” IN BULAWAYO,

LARGE NUMBERS OF VOTERS WERE TURNED AWAY FOR A VARIETY OF REASONS,

AND THE USE OF A LARGE SUPPLEMENTARY VOTERS ROLL WHICH HAD NOT

BEEN MADE AVAILABLE IN ADVANCE FOR PUBLIC INSPECTION RAISED

CONCERNS IN THE MINDS OF OBSERVERS. IN MID-AFTERNOON ON SEPTEMBER

10, THE ZIMBABWE BROADCASTING CORPORATION ANNOUNCED THAT THE MDC

HAD WON ALL SEVEN CITY COUNCIL SEATS, BUT WE DO NOT EXPECT

ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE MAYORAL RESULT UNTIL LATER ON SEPTEMBER 10 OR

EARLY ON SEPTEMBER 11. IN MAKONI WEST, VOTING WAS MOSTLY PEACEFUL

ALTHOUGH 3,000 FEWER VOTES WERE CAST THAN IN THE JUNE 2000

PARLIAMENTARY ELECTION. WE OBSERVED THAT SIGNIFICANT NUMBERS OF

VOTERS WERE TURNED AWAY AT POLLING STATIONS, AND GOZ AND/OR ZANU-

PF OFFICIALS TRAVELLED FREELY IN THE CONSTITUENCY, GIVING ORDERS

TO POLICE OFFICERS AND OTHER RELEVANT ELECTORAL OFFICIALS AT

POLLING STATIONS. THE FINAL RESULTS LIKELY WILL BE ANNOUNCED BY

SEPTEMBER 11. IN MAKONI WEST, WE DISCERNED AN EMERGING GOZ

STRATEGY TO TRY TO CONTROL THE INFORMATION AVAILABLE TO

INTERNATIONAL OBSERVERS BY TELLING DIPLOMATS NO ACCREDITATION WAS

REQUIRED WHILE INSTRUCTING RELEVANT LOCAL OFFICIALS NOT TO SHARE

INFORMATION WITHOUT PROOF OF ACCREDITATION.   END SUMMARY.

 

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 03       HARARE 02666 01 OF 03 101552Z

BULAWAYO

——–

 

2. (C) THE MAYORAL ELECTION IN BULAWAYO SEPTEMBER 8-9 WAS MOSTLY

PEACEFUL, BUT WAS MARRED BY A NUMBER OF IRREGULARITIES, OBSERVED

FIRST-HAND BY EMBASSY OFFICERS. AS THE SECOND DAY OF VOTING DREW

TO AN END, ONLY 16 PERCENT OF REGISTERED VOTERS HAD CAST THEIR

BALLOTS, IN CONTRAST TO 46 PERCENT IN THE JUNE 2000 PARLIAMENTARY

ELECTION (60,000 VERSUS 170,000, OUT OF A TOTAL OF 369,294

REGISTERED VOTERS). IT IS DIFFICULT TO DRAW ANY DEFINITIVE

CONCLUSIONS FROM THE LOW TURNOUT FIGURES, AS ZIMBABWEANS RARELY

TURN UP IN LARGE NUMBERS TO VOTE IN LOCAL ELECTIONS. WE HAVE

HEARD AN UNCONFIRMED REPORT THAT, IN THE FIRST DIRECT ELECTION FOR

BULAWAYO’S MAYOR IN THE MID-1990’S, ONLY FIVE PERCENT OF

REGISTERED VOTERS CAST BALLOTS. ADDITIONAL FACTORS THIS TIME WERE

LIKELY A WIDESPREAD EXPECTATION THAT THE OPPOSITION MOVEMENT FOR

DEMOCRATIC CHANGE (MDC) WOULD WIN HANDILY AND A RELUCTANCE TO RISK

ONE’S SKIN TO VOTE IN A MAYORAL ELECTION. WE ALSO HAVE HEARD

COMPLAINTS THAT THERE WERE TOO FEW POLLING STATIONS; THEY WERE FAR

APART, MAKING ACCESS PROBLEMATIC FOR THOSE WITHOUT CARS. SHARI

EPPEL, DIRECTOR OF THE BULAWAYO BRANCH OF THE RESPECTED HUMAN

RIGHTS ORGANIZATION AMANI TRUST, TOLD US THAT GROUPS OF ZANU-PF

SUPPORTERS WERE DROPPED THE WEEK PRIOR TO THE ELECTION IN SEVERAL

TOWNSHIPS, WHERE THEY SUBJECTED THE RESIDENTS TO THREATS OF

VIOLENCE AND INTIMIDATION. WE ALSO HEARD REPORTS OF LARGE NUMBERS

OF ZANU-PF SUPPORTERS BEING BUSED IN ON THE VOTING DAYS.

 

3. (C) WE HAVE RECEIVED FROM A VARIETY OF RELIABLE SOURCES

REPORTS OF PROCEDURAL IRREGULARITIES IN BULAWAYO. A HIGH NUMBER

OF VOTERS, FOR INSTANCE — RANGING BETWEEN TEN AND FORTY PERCENT

AT EACH POLLING STATION — WERE TURNED AWAY, EITHER BECAUSE THEIR

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 04       HARARE 02666 01 OF 03 101552Z

NAMES WERE NOT ON THE ROLL OR BECAUSE THEY WERE UNABLE TO PRESENT

PROPER IDENTIFICATION.   EMBASSY OFFICERS SPOKE WITH MANY PEOPLE

WHO WERE NOT ALLOWED TO VOTE, A MAJORITY OF WHOM WERE MALES

BETWEEN THE AGES OF 25 AND 45, A DEMOGRAPHIC WIDELY ASSUMED IN

THIS REGION TO BE SYMPATHETIC TOWARDS THE MDC. WE ALSO HAVE HEARD

TROUBLING ACCOUNTS OF VOTER ROLL MANIPULATION. BELINDA MUSANO,

DEPUTY COORDINATOR OF THE ZIMBABWE ELECTION SUPPORT NETWORK

(ZESN), WHICH CONDUCTS THE DOMESTIC MONITORING EFFORT, TOLD

POLITICAL SECTION CHIEF THAT A NUMBER OF RESIDENTS HAD CONFIRMED

THEIR NAMES WERE ON THE VOTERS ROLL DURING THE PERIOD OF PUBLIC

INSPECTION (JUNE 25-JULY 16), BUT ARRIVED ON VOTING DAY TO FIND

THAT THEIR NAMES HAD BEEN REMOVED. MOST OF THE RESIDENTS IN THIS

SITUATION WERE REPORTEDLY WHITE.

 

4. (C) IN ADDITION, A SUPPLEMENTARY VOTERS ROLL — WHICH WAS

NEVER MADE AVAILABLE IN ADVANCE FOR PUBLIC INSPECTION — WAS SEEN

AT SOME POLLING STATIONS, AND, IN SOME INSTANCES, IT WAS THICKER

THAN THE REGULAR ROLL. THERE ALSO WAS SIGNIFICANT CONFUSION ABOUT

WHERE PEOPLE WERE SUPPOSED TO VOTE. MOST VOTERS BELIEVED THAT

THEY COULD CAST THEIR BALLOTS ANYWHERE IN THE CONSTITUENCY IN

WHICH THEY WERE REGISTERED, BUT WERE TOLD WHEN THEY SHOWED UP TO

VOTE THAT THEY WERE REQUIRED TO VOTE IN THE WARD IN WHICH THEY

WERE RESIDENT (A CONSTITUENCY COMPRISES SEVERAL WARDS). THIS

REQUIREMENT WAS APPARENTLY IMPOSED BECAUSE SEVEN CITY COUNCIL

 

CONFIDENTIAL

 

CONFIDENTIAL     PTQ1673

 

PAGE 01       HARARE 02666 02 OF 03 101553Z

ACTION AF-00

 

INFO LOG-00   NP-00   AID-00   AMAD-00 CIAE-00 INL-00   DODE-00

SRPP-00 DS-00   EB-00   EUR-00   VC-00   H-01     TEDE-00

INR-00   IO-00   LAB-01   L-00     VCE-00   AC-01   NSAE-00

OIC-02   OMB-01   OPIC-01 CAEX-01 PA-00   PM-00   PRS-00

ACE-00   P-00     SP-00   STR-00   TRSE-00 USIE-00 PMB-00

DSCC-00 PRM-01   DRL-02   G-00     NFAT-00 SAS-00     /011W

——————1CFF96 101553Z /38

P 101538Z SEP 01

FM AMEMBASSY HARARE

TO SECSTATE WASHDC PRIORITY 9678

INFO NSC WASHDC PRIORITY

SOUTHERN AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY

AMEMBASSY NAIROBI

 

C O N F I D E N T I A L SECTION 02 OF 03 HARARE 002666

 

SIPDIS

 

NSC FOR SENIOR AFRICA DIRECTOR JENDAYI FRAZER

LONDON FOR GURNEY

PARIS FOR BISA WILLIAMS

NAIROBI FOR PFLAUMER

 

E.O. 12958: DECL. 09/10/11

TAGS: PGOV PHUM ZI

SUBJECT: BULAWAYO MAYORAL VOTE AND MAKONI WEST BY-ELECTION MARRED

BY IRREGULARITIES

 

SEATS — REPRESENTING PARTICULAR WARDS — WERE ON THE BALLOT BUT,

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 02       HARARE 02666 02 OF 03 101553Z

BECAUSE OF A LACK OF PRE-ELECTION VOTER EDUCATION, VOTERS WERE

NEVER INFORMED OF THIS REQUIREMENT DURING THE CAMPAIGN.

 

5. (C) ONE INCIDENT WHICH HAS GARNERED SIGNIFICANT PRESS

ATTENTION WAS THE SEPTEMBER 9 ARREST IN BULAWAYO OF THREE

BODYGUARDS OF MDC MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT DAVID COLTART. COLTART

TOLD US THAT THE BODYGUARDS WERE ARRESTED AFTER VIDEOTAPING A

LARGE BUS OFF-LOADING YOUNG MEN WITH SHAVED HEADS WHOM THEY

BELIEVED TO BE TROUBLEMAKERS OR ILLEGAL VOTERS BROUGHT IN BY THE

RULING PARTY. THE BODYGUARDS WERE DETAINED AND CHARGED WITH

FIREARMS VIOLATIONS AFTER A SEARCH OF THEIR HOUSES TURNED UP 17

GUNS. COLTART INSISTED THAT HIS BODYGUARDS HAVE LICENSES FOR EACH

OF THE FIREARMS, BUT THEY REMAINED IN DETENTION AS OF LATE

AFTERNOON SEPTEMBER 10.

 

6. (C) IT IS DIFFICULT TO ASSESS HOW MUCH THE IRREGULARITIES

AFFECTED THE ULTIMATE OUTCOME, BUT IT IS CLEAR THAT THEY WERE

SERIOUS AND NUMEROUS ENOUGH TO JUSTIFY A DESCRIPTION OF THE

ELECTION AS “FLAWED” AND RAISE QUESTIONS ABOUT THE TACTICS WE ARE

LIKELY TO SEE EMPLOYED IN FUTURE BY-ELECTIONS AND THE PRESIDENTIAL

ELECTION EXPECTED IN THE FIRST QUARTER OF 2002.

 

7. (U) SHORTLY BEFORE THIS CABLE WENT TO PRESS, THE ZIMBABWE

BROADCASTING CORPORATION (ZBC) ANNOUNCED THAT THE MDC HAD WON ALL

SEVEN OF THE CITY COUNCIL SEATS, REPORTEDLY BY A HANDY MARGIN.

THE MAYORAL RESULT LIKELY WILL NOT BE ANNOUNCED UNTIL LATE

SEPTEMBER 10 OR EARLY ON SEPTEMBER 11.

 

MAKONI WEST

———–

 

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 03       HARARE 02666 02 OF 03 101553Z

8. (C) AFTER A PRE-ELECTION CAMPAIGN IN MAKONI WEST MARRED BY THE

INCIDENTS OF VIOLENCE AND INTIMIDATION WE HAVE COME TO EXPECT IN

ZIMBABWEAN ELECTIONS (REFTEL) — ALTHOUGH LESS INTENSE AND

WIDESPREAD THAN IN THE LAST THREE BY-ELECTIONS IN BINDURA, BIKITA

WEST, AND MARONDERA — THE VOTING DAYS THEMSELVES SEPTEMBER 8-9

WERE MOSTLY PEACEFUL. VOTER TURNOUT WAS SLIGHTLY LOWER THAN IN

THE PARLIAMENTARY ELECTION, AS THIS TIME 17,067 PEOPLE CAST

BALLOTS (OUT OF A TOTAL OF 42,788 REGISTERED VOTERS), IN CONTRAST

TO 20,279 IN JUNE 2000.

 

9. (C) U.S. EMBASSY OFFICERS OBSERVED THE VOTING, COORDINATING

CLOSELY WITH OTHER DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS TO ENSURE THAT ALL 44

POLLING STATIONS RECEIVED A VISIT. SEVERAL INCIDENTS PROVIDED

CAUSE FOR CONCERN. ON SEPTEMBER 8, POLITICAL SECTION CHIEF CAME

ACROSS A GROUP OF 200-300 PEOPLE, MOST OF THEM MEN APPARENTLY

UNDER THE AGE OF FORTY, WHO HAD BEEN TURNED AWAY, ALTHOUGH THEIR

NAMES WERE ON THE VOTERS ROLL. THEY WERE TOLD THAT THEY NOW HAD

TO VOTE IN THE CONSTITUENCY OF MUTARE WEST, EVEN THOUGH MOST HAD

CAST BALLOTS IN JUNE 2000 AND EVEN THOUGH SOME OF THEIR NEIGHBORS

HAD BEEN ALLOWED TO VOTE. AS FAR AS WE HAVE BEEN ABLE TO

DETERMINE, THERE HAS BEEN NO NEW DEMARCATION OF MAKONI WEST SINCE

THE PARLIAMENTARY ELECTION. WE DO NOT YET HAVE A GOOD SENSE OF

WHETHER THIS WAS MORE THAN AN ISOLATED INCIDENT, BUT WE HAVE HEARD

ANECDOTAL REPORTS OF SIMILAR PROBLEMS ELSEWHERE IN THE

CONSTITUENCY. AT MOST OF THE POLLING STATIONS WE OBSERVED, MORE

THAN TEN PERCENT OF VOTERS WERE TURNED AWAY EITHER BECAUSE THEY

WERE NOT ON THE VOTERS ROLL OR BECAUSE THEY DID NOT PRESENT

IDENTIFICATION SUFFICIENT TO SATISFY THE PRESIDING OFFICER. (N.B.

WE ARE NOT CERTAIN WHETHER OR NOT THIS WAS DUE TO DELIBERATE

GOVERNMENT ACTIONS OR POOR INFORMATION PROVIDED TO THE VOTERS.)

WHEN THE CHIEF OF THE EUROPEAN UNION’S HARARE-BASED ELECTION

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 04       HARARE 02666 02 OF 03 101553Z

OBSERVATION UNIT SOUGHT AN APPOINTMENT WITH THE LOCAL REGISTRAR-

GENERAL TO ASK ABOUT THIS AND OTHER ALLEGED IRREGULARITIES, THE

REGISTRAR-GENERAL REFUSED TO MEET WITH HIM.

 

10. (C) IN A PATTERN CONSISTENT WITH THAT IN PAST BY-ELECTIONS,

GOVERNMENT AND/OR ZANU-PF OFFICIALS WITHOUT ACCREDITATION MOVED

UNHINDERED IN AND OUT OF POLLING STATIONS AND, IN SOME CASES, GAVE

ORDERS TO THE POLICE OFFICERS ON-SITE. AT ONE POLLING STATION,

MEN IN A VEHICLE WITH GOVERNMENT PLATES — WHO DID NOT IDENTIFY

THEMSELVES — HARASSED THE DRIVER OF OUR EMBASSY VEHICLE, TELLING

HIM WE SHOULD NOT HAVE BEEN THERE. THEY TOLD THE DRIVER THAT, “IF

YOU ALL (IN AN APPARENT REFERENCE TO INTERNATIONAL OBSERVERS )

INSIST ON CONTINUING TO OBSERVE, THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION WILL BE

TOUGHER.”   THE EFFECTS OF THE PRE-ELECTION VIOLENCE AND

INTIMIDATION WERE CLEAR, AS EVERYONE — THOSE WITH AN OFFICIAL

ROLE RELATED TO THE VOTING AS WELL AS ORDINARY VOTERS — WERE

CLEARLY UNCOMFORTABLE TALKING TO US. AT ONE POLLING STATION, A

WELL-DRESSED MAN CAME UP TO US, IDENTIFIED HIMSELF IN A FURTIVE

WHISPER AS AN MDC OFFICIAL, AND SAID HE HAD BEEN SENT FROM HARARE

TO OBSERVE THE CONDUCT OF THE ELECTION.

 

11. (C) GIVEN THE TENSE PRE-ELECTION ATMOSPHERE AND THE ELECTION-

DAY IRREGULARITIES NOTED ABOVE, IT IS NOT CLEAR THAT SOME

RESIDENTS FELT COMFORTABLE ABOUT VOTING AND THUS STAYED AWAY FROM

 

CONFIDENTIAL

 

CONFIDENTIAL     PTQ1675

 

PAGE 01       HARARE 02666 03 OF 03 101553Z

ACTION AF-00

 

INFO LOG-00   NP-00   AID-00   AMAD-00 CIAE-00 INL-00   DODE-00

SRPP-00 DS-00   EB-00   EUR-00   VC-00   H-01     TEDE-00

INR-00   IO-00   LAB-01   L-00     VCE-00   AC-01   NSAE-00

OIC-02   OMB-01   OPIC-01 CAEX-01 PA-00   PM-00   PRS-00

ACE-00   P-00     SP-00   STR-00   TRSE-00 USIE-00 PMB-00

DSCC-00 PRM-01   DRL-02   G-00     NFAT-00 SAS-00     /011W

——————1CFF9E 101553Z /38

P 101538Z SEP 01

FM AMEMBASSY HARARE

TO SECSTATE WASHDC PRIORITY 9679

INFO NSC WASHDC PRIORITY

SOUTHERN AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY

AMEMBASSY NAIROBI

 

C O N F I D E N T I A L SECTION 03 OF 03 HARARE 002666

 

SIPDIS

 

NSC FOR SENIOR AFRICA DIRECTOR JENDAYI FRAZER

LONDON FOR GURNEY

PARIS FOR BISA WILLIAMS

NAIROBI FOR PFLAUMER

 

E.O. 12958: DECL. 09/10/11

TAGS: PGOV PHUM ZI

SUBJECT: BULAWAYO MAYORAL VOTE AND MAKONI WEST BY-ELECTION MARRED

BY IRREGULARITIES

 

THE POLLS. WE CANNOT, THEREFORE, CHARACTERIZE THE MAKONI WEST

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 02       HARARE 02666 03 OF 03 101553Z

VOTE AS “FREE AND FAIR.” WE DO NOT EXPECT THE FINAL RESULT TO BE

ANNOUNCED UNTIL LATE IN THE DAY ON SEPTEMBER 10 OR SOMETIME ON

SEPTEMBER 11.

 

COMMENT

——-

 

12. (C) IN MAKONI WEST, WE OBSERVED WHAT APPEARS TO BE AN

EMERGING STRATEGY ON THE PART OF THE GOVERNMENT TO CONTROL THE

ABILITY OF INTERNATIONAL OBSERVERS TO OBSERVE ALL ASPECTS OF THE

ELECTORAL PROCESS. THE MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS HAS REPEATEDLY

TOLD DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS THAT THEY DO NOT REQUIRE ACCREDITATION TO

OBSERVE BY-ELECTIONS, BUT, DESPITE NUMEROUS REQUESTS, HAS REFUSED

TO PROVIDE WRITTEN DOCUMENTATION TO THAT EFFECT, WHICH CAN BE USED

OUTSIDE OF HARARE AND OTHER URBANIZED AREAS. IN MAKONI WEST, FOR

EXAMPLE, THE PRESIDING OFFICERS AT EACH POLLING STATION REFUSED

EVEN TO SPEAK TO US WITHOUT “OFFICIAL” GOZ ACCREDITATION AND, IN

SOME CASES, REFUSED TO ALLOW CONTACT BETWEEN US AND THE PARTY

POLLING AGENTS. IN PAST BY-ELECTIONS, POLICE OFFICERS OFTEN WERE

WILLING TO SHARE WITH US THEIR ASSESSMENTS OF THE DAY’S VOTING

BUT, THIS TIME, THE POLICE AT EACH POLLING STATION SIMPLY REFERRED

US TO THE PRESIDING OFFICER. MOST OF THE LOCAL OFFICIALS SEEMED

TO HAVE A CLEAR SET OF INSTRUCTIONS. OUR SENSE IS THAT WE MAY

HAVE A FUTURE PROBLEM WHEREIN THE RELEVANT GOZ AUTHORITIES IN

HARARE CONTINUE TO TELL US WE DO NOT NEED ACCREDITATION, WHILE

LOCAL OFFICIALS ARE INSTRUCTED NOT TO SHARE INFORMATION WITH US

UNLESS WE ARE ACCREDITED, A CLASSIC CATCH-22.

 

ROTH

 

CONFIDENTIAL

 

PAGE 03       HARARE 02666 03 OF 03 101553Z

 

CONFIDENTIAL

 

>

 

(27 VIEWS)

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Charles Rukuni
The Insider is a political and business bulletin about Zimbabwe, edited by Charles Rukuni. Founded in 1990, it was a printed 12-page subscription only newsletter until 2003 when Zimbabwe's hyper-inflation made it impossible to continue printing.

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